TreatiseTreatise

Trial Evidence Brought to Life: Illustrations from Famous Trials, Film and Fiction

 by Martin A Schwartz
 
 Copyright: 2015

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Product Details

  • ISBN Number: 9781402423871
  • Page Count: 1167
  • Number of Volumes: 1
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Trial Evidence Brought to Life is a unique, insightful and engaging guide to the law of evidence. Author Martin A. Schwartz enlivens an intricate, technical subject by using evidentiary examples from popular culture to provide a strong understanding of the Federal Rules of Evidence, and its interpretive case law which represents the prevailing evidence law in the United States.

Also, this unique instructive approach provides an understanding of how popular culture sources inform jurors’ preconceptions about the trial process. Illustrations from famous cases, movies, novels, cartoons, and other media highlight the presumptions jurors bring to the courtroom.

Trial Evidence Brought to Life covers a wide range of issues, including relevance and unfair prejudice, the rule against hearsay and its numerous exceptions, recent developments in expert testimony, and the various impeachment methods.

You’ll receive clear guidance on the following: 

  • Differences between expert witness and lay witness testimony, including how courts handle the dual fact-expert witness
  • Procedures for juror questioning of witnesses
  • Admissibility of videotape evidence
  • Recent developments under the Confrontation Clause
  • Requirements for introducing electronic evidence,
  • And more!
  Table of Contents
  Preface
Chapter 1: Evaluating Admissibility of Evidence—Fundamental Concepts and Perspectives
  • § 1:1 : Introduction2
  • § 1:2 : Evidence Must Navigate a Journey from Proponent to Trier of Fact2
    • § 1:2.1 : Overview2
    • § 1:2.2 : Relevance, Fed. R. Evid. 403, and Exclusionary Rules Hoops3
  • § 1:3 : Consider Limited Admissibility4
    • § 1:3.1 : Overview4
    • § 1:3.2 : Limiting Instructions4
  • § 1:4 : Do Not Fall Into the “Does Not Necessarily Prove” Trap5
    • § 1:4.1 : Overview5
    • § 1:4.2 : Direct and Circumstantial Evidence5
    • § 1:4.3 : Admissibility versus Weight6
  • § 1:5 : Critical Factor: Purpose for Introducing Evidence7
    • § 1:5.1 : Overview7
    • § 1:5.2 : Under the Evidence Rules7
    • § 1:5.3 : Evidentiary Advocacy8
  • § 1:6 : Rationales Behind the Evidence Rule: Evidence Law Is “Behavorial”8
    • § 1:6.1 : Overview8
    • § 1:6.2 : Rationales Behind Exclusionary Rules8
  • § 1:7 : High Percentage of Evidentiary Disputes Finally Resolved in Trial Court10
    • § 1:7.1 : Overview10
    • § 1:7.2 : Appellate Deference to Trial Court Decisions10
  • § 1:8 : Importance of Making Proper Evidentiary Objections at Trial11
  • § 1:9 : Evidence Rules That Facilitate Proof of Facts12
    • § 1:9.1 : Overview12
    • § 1:9.2 : Rules That Facilitate the Admissibility of Evidence13
      • [A] : Judicial Notice13
      • [B] : Witnesses Having Difficulty Remembering13
      • [C] : Proving the Non-Existence of a Fact14
      • [D] : Business Records14
      • [E] : Authentication and Identification: Self-Authenticating Documents15
      • [F] : “Best Evidence Rule”16
      • [G] : Summaries17
  • § 1:10 : Nature of Evidence Law; Focus on Federal Rules of Evidence18
    • § 1:10.1 : Overview18
    • § 1:10.2 : Constitutional Concerns18
    • § 1:10.3 : Focus on Federal Rules of Evidence19
Chapter 2: Applicability of the Federal Rules of Evidence
  • § 2:1 : Introduction22
  • § 2:2 : Broad Application of Federal Rules of Evidence in Federal Court Civil and Criminal Proceedings22
    • § 2:2.1 : Overview22
    • § 2:2.2 : Explicit Application22
    • § 2:2.3 : Exceptions from Application23
    • § 2:2.4 : Application in Civil and Criminal Cases23
    • § 2:2.5 : Federal Question and Diversity Cases25
  • § 2:3 : Jury Trials, Bench Trials, and Motions (Summary Judgment; Preliminary Injunctions)26
    • § 2:3.1 : Overview26
    • § 2:3.2 : Jury Trials and Bench Trials26
    • § 2:3.3 : Motions27
      • [A] : Summary Judgment27
      • [B] : Preliminary Injunctions28
  • § 2:4 : Functions of Judge and Jury29
    • § 2:4.1 : Overview29
    • § 2:4.2 : Admissibility Dependent on Judicial Fact-Finding29
  • § 2:5 : Criminal Prosecutions30
    • § 2:5.1 : Overview30
    • § 2:5.2 : Pre-Trial Proceedings30
    • § 2:5.3 : Motion to Suppress31
    • § 2:5.4 : Sentencing32
  • § 2:6 : Administrative Proceedings and Arbitrations34
Chapter 3: Procedural Aspects of the Law of Evidence
  • § 3:1 : Introduction36
  • § 3:2 : Objections to Admission of Evidence37
    • § 3:2.1 : Overview37
    • § 3:2.2 : Timeliness of Objection37
    • § 3:2.3 : Specificity of Objection40
    • § 3:2.4 : “Continuing Objections”43
    • § 3:2.5 : “Invited Error” Doctrine45
  • § 3:3 : Objection to Exclusion of Evidence: “Offer of Proof”46
    • § 3:3.1 : Overview46
    • § 3:3.2 : Proper Offer of Proof46
  • § 3:4 : Motions in Limine48
    • § 3:4.1 : Introduction48
    • § 3:4.2 : Law Governing Motions in Limine49
  • § 3:5 : Limiting and Curative Instructions51
    • § 3:5.1 : Overview51
    • § 3:5.2 : Model Instructions51
    • § 3:5.3 : Law Presumes Jurors Follow Court’s Instructions52
    • § 3:5.4 : Limiting Instructions56
  • § 3:6 : Rulings on Admissibility of Evidence59
    • § 3:6.1 : Overview59
    • § 3:6.2 : Inadmissible Evidence Should Be Shielded from Jury59
    • § 3:6.3 : Determination of Preliminary Facts60
  • § 3:7 : Judicial Control Over the Trial61
    • § 3:7.1 : Overview61
    • § 3:7.2 : Presentation of Evidence61
    • § 3:7.3 : Reopening of Trial65
    • § 3:7.4 : Leading Questions67
    • § 3:7.5 : Scope of Cross-Examination67
    • § 3:7.6 : Judge’s Calling Witnesses67
      • [A] : Overview67
      • [B] : Illustrative Recent Circuit Court Cases: Judge Questioning Witness and Commenting on Evidence68
        • [B][1] : First Circuit: United States v. Melendez-Rivas68
        • [B][2] : First Circuit: United States v. Angulo-Hernandez69
        • [B][3] : Second Circuit: Rivas v. Brattesani70
        • [B][4] : Seventh Circuit: United States v. Barnhart70
    • § 3:7.7 : Sequestration70
    • § 3:7.8 : Discretion Concerning Admissibility72
  • § 3:8 : Appellate Review74
    • § 3:8.1 : Overview74
    • § 3:8.2 : Waiver and “Door Opening”74
    • § 3:8.3 : Abuse of Discretion Review76
    • § 3:8.4 : Prejudicial versus Harmless Error77
    • § 3:8.5 : Plain Error Review81
      • [A] : Overview81
      • [B] : Waiver83
Chapter 4: Judicial Notice
  • § 4:1 : Introduction86
  • § 4:2 : Judicial Notice—Adjudicative Facts versus Legislative Facts86
    • § 4:2.1 : Overview86
    • § 4:2.2 : Adjudicative and Legislative Facts87
      • [A] : Distinctions87
      • [B] : The “Brandeis Brief”: Noticing Legislative Facts to Sustain Legislation88
      • [C] : Noticing Legislative Facts to Overturn Legislation89
  • § 4:3 : Judicial Notice of Adjudicative Facts91
    • § 4:3.1 : Overview91
    • § 4:3.2 : Facts Generally Known within Court’s Territorial Jurisdiction92
      • [A] : Overview92
      • [B] : Within Court’s Territorial Jurisdiction93
      • [C] : Not Judge’s Personal Knowledge: Examples94
      • [D] : Judicial Notice Taken: Examples95
      • [E] : Examples: Judicial Notice Denied98
    • § 4:3.3 : Judicial Notice of Adjudicative Facts—Reasonably Reliable Sources99
      • [A] : Overview99
      • [B] : “Almanac Facts”100
      • [C] : Reliability of Scientific Processes103
      • [D] : Court Records105
      • [E] : Websites105
      • [F] : Judicial Notice of Law106
        • [F][1] : Overview106
        • [F][2] : Federal Regulations and Federal Register Materials107
        • [F][3] : Municipal Ordinances and Codes108
        • [F][4] : Foreign Law108
  • § 4:4 : Procedural Aspects of Judicial Notice109
    • § 4:4.1 : Overview109
    • § 4:4.2 : Court May Take Judicial Notice on Its Own Motion109
    • § 4:4.3 : Judicial Notice May Be Taken at Any Stage; Judicial Notice on Appeal109
    • § 4:4.4 : Opportunity to Be Heard112
    • § 4:4.5 : Jury Instructions113
Chapter 5: Relevance and Federal Rule of Evidence 403
  • § 5:1 : Introduction116
  • § 5:2 : Relevance117
    • § 5:2.1 : Definition117
    • § 5:2.2 : Evidence Need Not Prove Fact Conclusively118
    • § 5:2.3 : Facts of Consequence118
    • § 5:2.4 : Fact Need Not Be in Dispute120
    • § 5:2.5 : Direct and Circumstantial Evidence: Basis for Excluding Evidence on Relevance Grounds120
      • [A] : Overview120
      • [B] : Books and Films in Criminal Defendant’s Possession122
      • [C] : Criminal Defendant’s Motive127
      • [D] : “Consciousness of Guilt”129
  • § 5:3 : Conditional Relevance135
    • § 5:3.1 : Overview135
    • § 5:3.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 104(b)135
  • § 5:4 : Fed. R. Evid. 403: Factors That Outweigh Probative Value137
    • § 5:4.1 : Overview137
    • § 5:4.2 : Governing Principle138
    • § 5:4.3 : Unfair Prejudice138
      • [A] : Overview138
      • [B] : Gruesome Photographs140
      • [C] : Gang Membership144
      • [D] : Limiting Instructions and Other Steps to Mitigate Unfair Prejudice144
    • § 5:4.4 : Confusing Issues or Misleading the Jury145
    • § 5:4.5 : Time Factors146
    • § 5:4.6 : Witness Credibility146
    • § 5:4.7 : Surprise146
    • § 5:4.8 : Stipulated Facts147
    • § 5:4.9 : When Fed. R. Evid. 403 Does Not Apply150
  • § 5:5 : Relevance and Fed. R. Evid. 403 on Appeal150
    • § 5:5.1 : Introduction150
    • § 5:5.2 : Abuse of Discretion Review151
Chapter 6: Character, Other Act, and Habit Evidence
  • § 6:1 : Introduction155
  • § 6:2 : Character Evidence155
    • § 6:2.1 : Overview155
    • § 6:2.2 : Character Evidence in Criminal Prosecutions156
      • [A] : Prosecution Evidence of Defendant’s “Bad” Character Prohibited156
      • [B] : Defendant Allowed to Introduce Evidence of Good Character158
        • [B][1] : Overview158
        • [B][2] : Filling in the Details162
          • [B][2][a] : Prosecution Right to Rebut and Cross-Examination of Character Witness: In General162
          • [B][2][b] : Civil Defendants Have No Right to Introduce Good Character Evidence162
          • [B][2][c] : Rebuttal on Particular Trait163
          • [B][2][d] : Prosecutor Cannot Try to “Help” Defendant with Good Character Evidence163
          • [B][2][e] : Proof of Character163
          • [B][2][f] : Cross-Examination of Character Witness165
    • § 6:2.3 : Character of Victim in Criminal Cases170
      • [A] : Overview170
      • [B] : Homicide Self-Defense Cases171
      • [C] : Sexual Assault Cases—Rape Shield Law172
        • [C][1] : Overview172
        • [C][2] : Civil Cases174
        • [C][3] : Procedural Aspects174
        • [C][4] : Other Issues in Sexual Misconduct Prosecutions178
    • § 6:2.4 : Character in Issue178
  • § 6:3 : “Other Act” Evidence in Criminal Cases184
    • § 6:3.1 : Overview184
    • § 6:3.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 404(b)185
      • [A] : Overview185
      • [B] : Fed. R. Evid. 404(b)(1) Exclusionary Rule185
      • [C] : Fed. R. Evid. 404(b)(2) Exclusionary Rule Exceptions187
      • [D] : “Reverse 404(b)”: Other Acts of Someone Other Than Criminal Defendant194
      • [E] : Potential Permissible Purposes for Admitting Other Act Evidence194
        • [E][1] : “Intent” and “Knowledge”194
        • [E][2] : Identity197
        • [E][3] : Motive198
        • [E][4] : “Common Plan or Scheme”200
    • § 6:3.3 : Other Special Examples200
  • § 6:4 : “Other Act” Evidence in Sexual Assault and Child Molestation Cases203
    • § 6:4.1 : Overview203
    • § 6:4.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 413–415204
  • § 6:5 : Admissibility of Other Act Evidence in Civil Litigation: Discrimination and Accident Claims207
    • § 6:5.1 : Overview207
    • § 6:5.2 : Discrimination Cases208
    • § 6:5.3 : Tort Cases (“Other Accidents”)212
    • § 6:5.4 : Other Lawsuits213
  • § 6:6 : Habit Evidence213
    • § 6:6.1 : Overview213
    • § 6:6.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 406214
    • § 6:6.3 : Important Points215
    • § 6:6.4 : Methods for Proving Habit218
    • § 6:6.5 : Special Examples219
Chapter 7: Special Relevance Issues: Remedial Measures; Settlements; Medical Expenses; Plea Bargaining; Liability Insurance
  • § 7:1 : Introduction224
  • § 7:2 : Fed. R. Evid. 407: Subsequent Remedial Measures224
    • § 7:2.1 : Overview224
    • § 7:2.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 407224
    • § 7:2.3 : Exceptions to the Fed. R. Evid. 407 Exclusionary Rule227
  • § 7:3 : Fed. R. Evid. 408: Settlement Evidence229
    • § 7:3.1 : Overview229
    • § 7:3.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 408230
      • [A] : The Rule and Its Rationales230
      • [B] : Must Be a “Disputed” Claim230
      • [C] : Fed. R. Evid. 408 Difficulties231
      • [D] : Offers to Settle and Settlements234
      • [E] : Conduct and Statements During Negotiations235
      • [F] : Physical and Documentary Evidence Referenced During Negotiations235
      • [G] : Exceptions to Exclusionary Rule236
      • [H] : 2006 Amendments to Fed. R. Evid. 408236
      • [I] : Fed. R. Evid. 408 and “Work Product”239
      • [J] : Does Fed. R. Evid. 408 Create an Evidentiary Privilege?240
  • § 7:4 : Fed. R. Evid. 409: Payments and Offers to Pay Medical Expenses240
    • § 7:4.1 : Overview240
    • § 7:4.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 409240
  • § 7:5 : Fed. R. Evid. 410: Plea Bargaining242
    • § 7:5.1 : Overview242
    • § 7:5.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 410242
    • § 7:5.3 : Waiver244
  • § 7:6 : Fed. R. Evid. 411: Liability Insurance247
    • § 7:6.1 : Overview247
    • § 7:6.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 411248
    • § 7:6.3 : Governmental Indemnification249
Chapter 8: Rule Against Hearsay
  • § 8:1 : Introduction252
  • § 8:2 : Fundamental Hearsay Principles253
    • § 8:2.1 : Overview253
    • § 8:2.2 : Hearsay253
      • [A] : Definition253
      • [B] : Justifications for Exclusionary Rule254
      • [C] : Witness’s Testimony About a Declarant’s Out-of-Court Statement256
      • [D] : Witness Recounting of Her Own Out-of-Court Statement257
  • § 8:3 : “Mere Making of Out-of-Court Statement”259
    • § 8:3.1 : Overview259
    • § 8:3.2 : Distinction Between Out-of-Court Statement Offered for Its Truth and Merely for Fact Statement Was Made259
    • § 8:3.3 : Categories of Relevant Out-of-Court Statements261
      • [A] : Verbal Acts261
        • [A][1] : Overview261
        • [A][2] : Examples261
      • [B] : Verbal Parts of Acts263
      • [C] : State of Mind264
        • [C][1] : State of Mind of Declarant264
        • [C][2] : State of Mind of Listener to Show Notice or Warning267
      • [D] : Prior Inconsistent Statements269
      • [E] : Questions269
      • [F] : Orders, Commands, and Instructions271
  • § 8:4 : Machine Readings and Animal Sounds Are Not Hearsay272
    • § 8:4.1 : Overview272
    • § 8:4.2 : Machine Readings273
    • § 8:4.3 : Animal Sounds273
  • § 8:5 : Declarant’s Intent: Silence, Conduct, and Implied Assertions276
    • § 8:5.1 : Overview276
    • § 8:5.2 : Silence277
    • § 8:5.3 : Conduct278
    • § 8:5.4 : Doctrine of Implied Assertions280
      • [A] : The Issue280
      • [B] : Common Law Rejection of Doctrine of Implied Assertions280
      • [C] : Implied Assertions Under the Federal Rules of Evidence281
        • [C][1] : Overview281
        • [C][2] : “Verbal Act” Cases282
      • [D] : “Closer Call” Cases Under Federal Rules of Evidence: The “Non-Verbal Act” Cases284
      • [E] : Ongoing Debate About Implied Assertions286
Chapter 9: Recurring Hearsay Exemptions and Exceptions: A “Transactional” Approach
  • § 9:1 : Introduction to Hearsay Exemptions and Exceptions296
    • § 9:1.1 : Overview296
    • § 9:1.2 : Exemptions versus Exceptions296
    • § 9:1.3 : Transactional Approach297
      • [A] : Overview297
      • [B] : Mastering the Elements298
      • [C] : Some Extensions and Exemptions Saved for Later298
      • [D] : Nicknamed Exceptions298
      • [E] : Confrontation Clause299
  • § 9:2 : Statements of Opposing Party (“Admissions”)299
    • § 9:2.1 : Overview299
    • § 9:2.2 : Common Law Treatment: Theory of Admissibility300
    • § 9:2.3 : Under the Federal Rules of Evidence301
      • [A] : Overview301
      • [B] : Proponent May Not Introduce Her Own Out-of-Court Statement302
      • [C] : How “Admissions” Come About: Statements, Adopted Statements, Conduct, and Silence302
      • [D] : Are Admissions Binding? Formal Judicial Admissions versus Evidential Admissions304
      • [E] : Criminal Prosecutions; Confessions305
  • § 9:3 : Statements by Agents and Employees (“Vicarious Admissions”)309
    • § 9:3.1 : Overview309
    • § 9:3.2 : Federal Rules of Evidence Expansion of Common Law Vicarious Admission Rule309
      • [A] : Overview309
      • [B] : Statements of Illegal Activity311
      • [C] : Statements by Attorney for Party311
      • [D] : Special Vicarious Admission Examples312
  • § 9:4 : Statement of Co-Conspirators316
    • § 9:4.1 : Overview316
    • § 9:4.2 : Under the Federal Rules of Evidence316
      • [A] : Fed. R. Evid. 801(d)(2)(E)316
      • [B] : Proponent’s Burden of Establishing Elements of Co-Conspirator Rule320
      • [C] : Confrontation Clause321
  • § 9:5 : Out-of-Court Identifications321
    • § 9:5.1 : Overview321
    • § 9:5.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 801(d)(1)(c): Rationale and Scope321
  • § 9:6 : Present Sense Impression and Excited Utterances, Statements Describing Events and Statements Made Under Stress—911 Calls; Accident Scene Statements; Crime Scene Statements; Emergency Room Statements323
    • § 9:6.1 : Overview323
    • § 9:6.2 : Down with Res Gestae!323
    • § 9:6.3 : Statements Describing or Explaining an Event (Fed. R. Evid. 803(1))324
    • § 9:6.4 : Statements Made Under Stress or Excitement of Event326
    • § 9:6.5 : Comparing Present Sense Impression and Excited Utterance Hearsay Exceptions329
    • § 9:6.6 : Special Examples: Present Sense Impression and Excited Utterances331
  • § 9:7 : Statements of Present Physical or Mental State, and Intent to Act in the Future341
    • § 9:7.1 : Fed. R. Evid. 803(3)341
      • [A] : Overview341
      • [B] : Theory of Reliability341
      • [C] : Conscious Fabrications342
    • § 9:7.2 : Statements of Present Physical Condition342
    • § 9:7.3 : Statements of Present Mental or Emotional State343
      • [A] : Overview343
      • [B] : Relevance in General345
      • [C] : Relevance Under Substantive Law345
    • § 9:7.4 : Statement of Intent to Act in the Future (Hillmon Doctrine)347
      • [A] : Overview347
      • [B] : Hillmon Under the Federal Rules of Evidence352
      • [C] : Intention to Act with Another352
      • [D] : Backward-Looking Statements356
  • § 9:8 : Statements for Purpose of Medical Diagnosis or Treatment358
    • § 9:8.1 : Introduction358
    • § 9:8.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 803(4): Rationale and Scope358
      • [A] : Overview358
      • [B] : Cause of Illness, Injury or Malady360
        • [B][1] : Overview360
        • [B][2] : Child Abuse, Sexual Abuse and Domestic Abuse Cases361
      • [C] : Statements for Medical Diagnosis361
      • [D] : Applications of Fed. R. Evid. 803(4)362
  • § 9:9 : Business Records (including Hospital and Physicians’ Records and Accident Reports)365
    • § 9:9.1 : Overview365
    • § 9:9.2 : Theory of Reliability365
    • § 9:9.3 : Broad Definition of “Business,” Even “Illegal Business”366
    • § 9:9.4 : Broad Definition of Record367
      • [A] : Overview367
      • [B] : Computer-Generated Records369
      • [C] : Public Records369
    • § 9:9.5 : Foundation Requirements: “Business Duty to Transmit”370
      • [A] : Fed. R. Evid. 803(6)370
        • [A][1] : Overview370
        • [A][2] : Records Required by Law371
        • [A][3] : Emails371
      • [B] : No Business Duty to Transmit: The Johnson v. Lutz Issue372
      • [C] : Establishing the Foundation373
    • § 9:9.6 : Patient Records: Hospital and Other Medical Records375
    • § 9:9.7 : Accident Reports377
  • § 9:10 : Proving a Negative: Absence of Entry in Business Record378
    • § 9:10.1 : Overview378
    • § 9:10.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 803(7)378
  • § 9:11 : Governmental Records380
    • § 9:11.1 : Overview380
    • § 9:11.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 803(8) Categories of Public Records381
      • [A] : Overview381
      • [B] : Fed. R. Evid. 803(A)(i): Reports of Government Agency Activities381
      • [C] : Fed. R. Evid. 803(8)(ii): Reports of Board on Personal Knowledge and Duty to Report; “Law Enforcement Personnel”382
      • [D] : Fed. R. Evid. 803(8)(iii): Government Investigatory Reports384
        • [D][1] : Overview384
        • [D][2] : Examples of Recently Publicized Government Investigatory Reports385
        • [D][3] : Elements of Investigatory Report Hearsay Exception388
        • [D][4] : Trustworthiness388
        • [D][5] : “Evaluative Reports”: Opinions and Conclusions389
        • [D][6] : “Hearsay Within Hearsay”390
        • [D][7] : Fed. R. Evid. 403390
        • [D][8] : Congressional Reports391
      • [E] : Relationship Between Public Records and Business Records Rules392
  • § 9:12 : Fed. R. Evid. 803(10): Absence of Entry in Governmental Record393
  • § 9:13 : The Fed. R. Evid. 804 Exceptions: “Unavailability”; Forfeiture by Wrongdoing394
    • § 9:13.1 : Overview394
    • § 9:13.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 804(a): “Criteria for Being Unavailable”394
      • [A] : Overview394
      • [B] : “Wrongful Conduct”396
      • [C] : Forfeiture by Wrongdoing396
  • § 9:14 : “Former Testimony”396
    • § 9:14.1 : Overview396
    • § 9:14.2 : Elements of Former Testimony Hearsay Exception: Fed. R. Evid. 804(b)(1)397
      • [A] : Overview397
      • [B] : Adequate Opportunity and Similar Motive to Cross-Examine the Declarant397
        • [B][1] : Civil Cases: “Predecessor in Interest”399
        • [B][2] : Criminal Cases400
          • [B][2][a] : Overview400
          • [B][1][b] : Grand Jury Testimony402
  • § 9:15 : “Dying Declarations”404
    • § 9:15.1 : Overview404
    • § 9:15.2 : Rationale for Dying Declaration Exception404
    • § 9:15.3 : Elements of the Dying Declaration Hearsay Exception: Fed. R. Evid. 804(b)(2)408
      • [A] : Overview408
      • [B] : Declarant Is Unavailable408
      • [C] : Declarant Believed Death Was Imminent When Making Her Statement408
      • [D] : Out-of-Court Statement About Cause or Circumstances of Declarant’s Believed Impending Death412
  • § 9:16 : Statements Against Declarant’s Pecuniary, Property or Penal Interest412
    • § 9:16.1 : Overview412
    • § 9:16.2 : Rationale412
    • § 9:16.3 : Elements of Declaration Against Interest Hearsay Exception: Fed. R. Evid. 804(b)(3)413
    • § 9:16.4 : “Parsing the Statement”415
  • § 9:17 : “Forfeiture by Wrongdoing”418
    • § 9:17.1 : Overview418
    • § 9:17.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 804(b)(6)418
  • § 9:18 : “Residual” Exception: Fed. R. Evid. 807420
    • § 9:18.1 : Overview420
    • § 9:18.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 807420
  • § 9:19 : Impeachment of Hearsay Declarant421
    • § 9:19.1 : Overview421
    • § 9:19.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 806422
  • § 9:20 : “Hearsay Within Hearsay”422
Chapter 10: Confrontation Clause in the Post-Crawford World
  • § 10:1 : Introduction424
  • § 10:2 : Confrontation Clause426
    • § 10:2.1 : Overview426
    • § 10:2.2 : Confrontation Clause Protections426
      • [A] : Protects Only Criminal Defendants426
      • [B] : Confrontation Clause and Sentencing426
  • § 10:3 : Crawford v. Washington Works a Sea Change428
    • § 10:3.1 : Overview428
    • § 10:3.2 : Crawford v. Washington Overrules Ohio v. Roberts428
    • § 10:3.3 : Specific Issue in Crawford: Formal Police Interrogation431
  • § 10:4 : Crawford and Its Progeny434
    • § 10:4.1 : Davis v. Washington and Hammon v. Indiana434
      • [A] : Overview434
      • [B] : 911 Calls434
      • [C] : Crime Scene Statements437
    • § 10:4.2 : Michigan v. Bryant: Crime Scene Statements Revisited437
      • [A] : Overview437
      • [B] : Issues and Rulings439
      • [C] : Decision, Concurrences, Dissents, and an Open Issue442
    • § 10:4.3 : Melendez-Diaz v. Massachusetts: Forensic Laboratory Reports444
      • [A] : Overview444
      • [B] : Issues and Rulings444
      • [C] : Limits on Court’s Decision in Melendez-Diaz449
    • § 10:4.4 : Bullcoming v. New Mexico: Blood Alcohol Reports450
      • [A] : Overview450
      • [B] : Rulings452
        • [B][1] : Blood Alcohol Report Is Testimonial452
        • [B][2] : “Surrogate” Analyst Insufficient452
      • [C] : Concurrence and Dissent453
        • [C][1] : Sotomayor Concurrence453
        • [C][2] : Dissent454
    • § 10:4.5 : Williams v. Illinois: Expert’s Reliance on Forensic Report454
      • [A] : Overview454
      • [B] : Issue Thought to Be Presented to U.S. Supreme Court456
      • [C] : Alito Plurality457
        • [C][1] : Overview457
        • [C][2] : Hearsay Offered for Mere Making of Statement458
        • [C][3] : Report Not Testimonial458
      • [D] : Concurrences459
        • [D][1] : Breyer Concurrence459
        • [D][2] : Thomas Concurrence460
      • [E] : Kagan Four-Justice Dissent460
      • [F] : Uncertainty Abounds461
    • § 10:4.6 : Unresolved Government Reports Issues462
    • § 10:4.7 : Forfeiture by Wrongdoing463
  • § 10:5 : The Bruton Co-Defendant Interlocking Confession Problem465
    • § 10:5.1 : Overview465
    • § 10:5.2 : The Bruton Rule466
    • § 10:5.3 : Bruton and Crawford467
Chapter 11: “Witness Competence”: Who May Testify
  • § 11:1 : Introduction470
  • § 11:2 : From the Common Law to the Federal Rules of Evidence471
    • § 11:2.1 : Overview471
    • § 11:2.2 : Common Law Background471
    • § 11:2.3 : Under the Federal Rules of Evidence472
      • [A] : Overview472
      • [B] : State Law Claims in Federal Court: “The Dead Man’s Act”473
        • [B][1] : Overview473
        • [B][2] : Dead Man’s Statute in a Nutshell475
  • § 11:3 : Oath or Affirmation476
    • § 11:3.1 : Overview476
    • § 11:3.2 : Oaths Under the Federal Rules of Evidence477
  • § 11:4 : Personal Knowledge478
    • § 11:4.1 : Overview478
    • § 11:4.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 602478
    • § 11:4.3 : Relationship Between Personal Knowledge Requirement and Rule Against Hearsay479
  • § 11:5 : Children480
    • § 11:5.1 : Overview480
    • § 11:5.2 : Determining the Competency of Young Children to Testify481
  • § 11:6 : Judge As Witness488
    • § 11:6.1 : Overview488
    • § 11:6.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 605488
  • § 11:7 : Juror As Witness489
    • § 11:7.1 : Overview489
    • § 11:7.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 606(a): “At the Trial”490
    • § 11:7.3 : Fed. R. Evid. 606(b): Post-Verdict490
      • [A] : Overview490
      • [B] : Juror Use of Alcohol and Drugs493
      • [C] : Juror-Conducted Experiments495
      • [D] : Juror Pressure and Threats Against Fellow Jurors496
      • [E] : Racial Prejudice497
      • [F] : Clerical Error499
      • [G] : “Google Twitter” Issue500
      • [H] : Juror’s Personal Knowledge and Experiences502
  • § 11:8 : Attorneys As Witnesses505
    • § 11:8.1 : Overview505
    • § 11:8.2 : Advocate Witness Rule506
    • § 11:8.3 : Examples506
  • § 11:9 : Constitutional Aspect of Witness Competence512
    • § 11:9.1 : Overview512
    • § 11:9.2 : Rock v. Arkansas: Criminal Defendant As Witness512
Chapter 12: Direct Examination of Witnesses
  • § 12:1 : Introduction518
  • § 12:2 : Judicial Control of Direct Testimony518
    • § 12:2.1 : Overview518
    • § 12:2.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 611518
  • § 12:3 : Juror Questioning of Witnesses519
    • § 12:3.1 : Overview519
    • § 12:3.2 : S.E.C. v. Koenig519
    • § 12:3.3 : United States v. Rawlings522
    • § 12:3.4 : Circuit-by-Circuit—Juror Questioning of Witnesses523
    • § 12:3.5 : State Courts525
    • § 12:3.6 : ABA Principles; Seventh Circuit Study526
      • [A] : ABA Principles526
      • [B] : Seventh Circuit Study527
  • § 12:4 : Leading Questions—Generally Prohibited on Direct and Allowed on Cross527
    • § 12:4.1 : Overview527
    • § 12:4.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 611(c)528
      • [A] : Overview528
      • [B] : Exceptions to the No Leading Questions Rule529
        • [B][1] : “Develop the Witness’s Testimony”529
        • [B][2] : Hostile Witnesses and Adverse Parties530
        • [B][3] : Cross-Examination533
  • § 12:5 : Witnesses with Memory Problems: Present Recollection Refreshed and Past Recollection Recorded: Don’t Mix Them Up535
    • § 12:5.1 : Overview535
    • § 12:5.2 : Distinguishing Present Recollection Refreshed and Past Recollection Recorded536
    • § 12:5.3 : Fed. R. Evid. 612: Present Recollection Refreshed539
      • [A] : Overview539
      • [B] : What Kind of Writing? Any Kind!539
      • [C] : Procedural Protections to the Adverse Party?541
      • [D] : What If the Document Is Privileged?543
    • § 12:5.4 : Illustrations—Present Recollection Refreshed543
    • § 12:5.5 : Fed. R. Evid. 803(5): Past Recollection Recorded548
    • § 12:5.6 : So Which Is It, Present Recollection Revived or Past Recollection Recorded?552
Chapter 13: Cross-Examination, Impeachment, and Rehabilitation
  • § 13:1 : Introduction556
  • § 13:2 : Right of Cross-Examination557
    • § 13:2.1 : Overview557
    • § 13:2.2 : Cross-Examination Is a Right, Not a Privilege557
      • [A] : Overview557
      • [B] : Waiver of Fifth Amendment Privilege Against Self-Incrimination562
      • [C] : Leading Questions Usually Allowed on Cross-Examination562
    • § 13:2.3 : Scope of Cross-Examination563
    • § 13:2.4 : The Art of Cross-Examination567
  • § 13:3 : Impeachment: In General570
    • § 13:3.1 : Overview570
    • § 13:3.2 : The Authorized Methods of Impeachment570
    • § 13:3.3 : “Collateral” versus “Non-Collateral” Impeachment571
    • § 13:3.4 : Religious Beliefs Are Off Limits571
    • § 13:3.5 : No Expert Testimony on Credibility573
  • § 13:4 : Who May Impeach573
    • § 13:4.1 : Overview573
    • § 13:4.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 607573
  • § 13:5 : Impeachment by Disabilities580
    • § 13:5.1 : Overview580
    • § 13:5.2 : Legal Principles580
    • § 13:5.3 : Illustrative Applications581
  • § 13:6 : Impeachment by Bias590
    • § 13:6.1 : Overview590
    • § 13:6.2 : Bases for Attacking Witness As Biased591
    • § 13:6.3 : Governing Principles592
      • [A] : Bias Is Non-Collateral Method of Impeachment592
      • [B] : What If Criminal Defendant Testifies on Own Behalf?594
    • § 13:6.4 : Confrontation Clause594
    • § 13:6.5 : Illustrations: Impeachment by Bias595
      • [A] : Witness’s Deal with Government595
      • [B] : Financial Interest600
      • [C] : Racial Motivation602
      • [D] : Personal Animosity, Anger, Hostility, and the Like604
  • § 13:7 : Impeachment by Conviction606
    • § 13:7.1 : Overview606
    • § 13:7.2 : Common Law Background and Significance of Issue606
    • § 13:7.3 : Fed. R. Evid. 609608
      • [A] : Overview608
      • [B] : Fed. R. Evid. 609(a)(2): Crimen Falsi Convictions (Element of Deceit or False Statement)608
      • [C] : Fed. R. Evid. 609(a)(1): “Other Felonies”610
      • [D] : “Other Misdemeanors”611
      • [E] : Convictions Based on Plea of Nolo Contendere612
      • [F] : Elderly Convictions613
      • [G] : Traffic Infractions614
      • [H] : Arrests614
      • [I] : Delinquency Adjudications614
      • [J] : Appeal from Conviction614
      • [K] : Pardons615
      • [L] : Evidence of Conviction615
      • [M] : Details Concerning Conviction616
      • [N] : Criminal Defendant Must Testify to Challenge on Appeal Ruling Allowing His Convictions to Be Used to Impeach616
      • [O] : “Opening the Door to Remove the Sting”617
    • § 13:7.4 : Illustrations: Impeachment by Conviction618
  • § 13:8 : Immoral Acts Impeachment622
    • § 13:8.1 : Overview622
    • § 13:8.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 608(b)622
      • [A] : Overview622
      • [B] : Subject to Fed. R. Evid. 403623
      • [C] : Collateral Method: No Extrinsic Evidence623
      • [D] : Good Faith Basis624
      • [E] : Privilege Against Self-Incrimination624
      • [F] : Judicial Findings in Prior Proceeding: Witness Not Credible625
      • [G] : Relationship Between Fed. R. Evid. 404(b) and Fed. R. Evid. 608(b)626
      • [H] : Reconciling Fed. R. Evid. 608 and Fed. R. Evid. 609627
    • § 13:8.3 : Illustrations: Immoral Acts Impeachment627
  • § 13:9 : Character for Truth and Veracity633
    • § 13:9.1 : Overview633
    • § 13:9.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 608(a)634
      • [A] : Overview634
      • [B] : Laying the Foundation634
      • [C] : Relevant Community634
    • § 13:9.3 : Illustrations of Bad Character for Truth and Veracity Impeachment636
  • § 13:10 : Impeachment by Prior Inconsistent Statement636
    • § 13:10.1 : Overview636
    • § 13:10.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 613637
      • [A] : Overview637
      • [B] : Omissions638
      • [C] : Fed. R. Evid. 801(d)(1)(A): Hearsay Aspect640
      • [D] : Impeachment by Inconsistent Statement Is Neither Collateral nor Non-Collateral: A Hybrid Method of Impeachment642
      • [E] : Witness’s Opportunity to Explain Inconsistency: How about TheQueen Caroline Case?643
    • § 13:10.3 : Illustrations: Inconsistent Statement Impeachment645
  • § 13:11 : Specific Contradiction652
    • § 13:11.1 : Overview652
    • § 13:11.2 : Governing Principles652
    • § 13:11.3 : Illustration: Specific Contradiction654
  • § 13:12 : Distinguishing the Impeachment Methods656
    • § 13:12.1 : Overview656
    • § 13:12.2 : Distinction Between Other Act and Specific Contradiction Impeachment656
    • § 13:12.3 : Distinction Between Bad Acts Impeachment and Prior Inconsistent Statement Impeachment657
    • § 13:12.4 : Distinction Between Prior Inconsistent Statement and Specific Contradiction657
  • § 13:13 : No Expert Testimony on Credibility (and No Lay Opinion Witness Was Lying Either)658
    • § 13:13.1 : Overview658
    • § 13:13.2 : Other Illustrations; Expert Testimony Not Admissible to Impeach662
    • § 13:13.3 : Lay Witness Not Permitted to Opine About Another Witness’s Truthfulness664
  • § 13:14 : Rehabilitation and Bolstering (Good Character for Truth and Veracity and Prior Consistent Statements667
    • § 13:14.1 : Overview667
    • § 13:14.2 : Good Character for Truth and Veracity667
    • § 13:14.3 : Prior Consistent Statement669
    • § 13:14.4 : Illustrations: Prior Consistent Statements675
Chapter 14: Expert Testimony and Lay Opinion Testimony
  • § 14:1 : Introduction681
  • § 14:2 : Lay Opinions681
    • § 14:2.1 : Overview681
    • § 14:2.2 : Common Law Background682
    • § 14:2.3 : Fed. R. Evid. 701683
  • § 14:3 : Expert Testimony691
    • § 14:3.1 : Overview691
    • § 14:3.2 : Importance of Expert Testimony692
    • § 14:3.3 : Requirements for Admissibility of Expert Testimony693
    • § 14:3.4 : Expert Must Be “Qualified”698
      • [A] : Overview698
      • [B] : The Humble Expert699
      • [C] : Expert with “Stellar Qualifications”701
      • [D] : Examples of Qualifications of Experts701
    • § 14:3.5 : Should Trial Judge Inform Jury Witness Is an Expert?708
    • § 14:3.6 : Scientific and Non-Scientific Expert Testimony: Daubert–Kumho Tire Relevance and Reliability Standards709
      • [A] : Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals709
      • [B] : Kumho Tire712
      • [C] : Admissibility versus Weight714
      • [D] : Daubert Hearing715
      • [E] : Reliability: Principles and Methodology or Conclusion?715
      • [F] : “Reasonable Degree of Scientific Certainty?”716
      • [G] : “Experts for Hire” Under Daubert717
      • [H] : Daubert: Summary Judgment and Bench Trials717
      • [I] : Daubert and Class Actions718
      • [J] : Scientific Evidence Examples: From Fingerprinting to Polygraphs719
        • [J][1] : Overview719
        • [J][2] : Criminal Defendant’s Offer to Take Polygraph721
        • [J][3] : “Unilateral Polygraphs”722
        • [J][4] : Improper Reference to Criminal Defendant’s Failing Polygraph Examination722
      • [K] : Distinction Between Reliability of Scientific Process and Manner Process Was Employed and Applied726
      • [L] : Appellate Review of Daubert Reliability Determinations728
    • § 14:3.7 : “Help the Trier of Fact”; Expert Testimony on Ultimate Issues728
      • [A] : “Help the Trier of Fact”728
      • [B] : Judicial Applications of the Helpfulness Standard729
        • [B][1] : Law Enforcement Operations729
        • [B][2] : Expert Testimony on Structure and Methods of Organized Crime729
        • [B][3] : Operation of Drug Dealers731
        • [B][4] : Meaning of Drug Vernacular731
        • [B][5] : Reliability of Eyewitness Testimony733
        • [B][6] : False Confessions734
        • [B][7] : Meaning of Racial Epithet736
        • [B][8] : Human Memory737
      • [C] : Expert Testimony on “Ultimate Issues”737
        • [C][1] : Fed. R. Evid. 704(a)737
        • [C][2] : Fed. R. Evid. 704(b)740
    • § 14:3.8 : Basis for Expert Testimony (Focus on Fed. R. Evid. 703)745
      • [A] : Basis of Expert Testimony745
      • [B] : Expert’s Reliance on Inadmissible Evidence745
      • [C] : Fed. R. Evid. 705748
      • [D] : Hypothetical Questions749
    • § 14:3.9 : Cross–Examinations of Experts; Impeachment; Learned Treatise Rule749
      • [A] : Cross-Examination of Experts in General749
      • [B] : Impeachment751
      • [C] : Learned Treatise Rule756
  • § 14:4 : Distinguishing Lay Witness Testimony from Expert Testimony: “Dual Lay-Expert” Witness Testimony758
    • § 14:4.1 : Overview758
    • § 14:4.2 : Distinguishing Lay Opinion Testimony from Expert Opinion Testimony758
    • § 14:4.3 : “Dual Lay and Expert Witness”770
    • § 14:4.4 : Circuit-by-Circuit—Illustrative Dual Witnesses Discussion771
  • § 14:5 : Court-Appointed Experts775
    • § 14:5.1 : Overview775
    • § 14:5.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 706776
Chapter 15: Real and Demonstrative Evidence
  • § 15:1 : Definitions of “Real” and “Demonstrative” Evidence779
  • § 15:2 : Real Evidence: Authentication and Identification781
    • § 15:2.1 : Overview781
    • § 15:2.2 : Authentication and Identification781
      • [A] : Definition781
      • [B] : Role of Judge and Jury783
    • § 15:2.3 : Examples784
  • § 15:3 : Display of Wound or Injuries787
    • § 15:3.1 : Overview787
    • § 15:3.2 : Legal Principles787
    • § 15:3.3 : Example788
    • § 15:3.4 : Demonstration of Effect of Injury790
  • § 15:4 : Change in Condition; Chain of Custody791
    • § 15:4.1 : Overview791
    • § 15:4.2 : Changes in Condition791
    • § 15:4.3 : Chain of Custody791
  • § 15:5 : Jury Views792
    • § 15:5.1 : Overview792
    • § 15:5.2 : Legal Principles792
    • § 15:5.3 : Examples795
  • § 15:6 : Criminal Defendant As Source of Real or Physical Evidence798
    • § 15:6.1 : Overview798
    • § 15:6.2 : Legal Principles798
  • § 15:7 : Experiments799
    • § 15:7.1 : Overview799
    • § 15:7.2 : Legal Principles800
  • § 15:8 : Reenactments802
    • § 15:8.1 : Overview802
    • § 15:8.2 : Legal Principles803
  • § 15:9 : Models and Replicas805
    • § 15:9.1 : Overview805
    • § 15:9.2 : Legal Principles805
  • § 15:10 : Diagrams806
    • § 15:10.1 : Overview806
    • § 15:10.2 : Legal Principles807
  • § 15:11 : Photographs809
    • § 15:11.1 : Overview809
    • § 15:11.2 : Governing Principles810
  • § 15:12 : Videotapes and Computer-Generated Simulations813
    • § 15:12.1 : Overview813
    • § 15:12.2 : Legal Principles: Admissibility of Videotapes816
      • [A] : Overview816
      • [B] : Use of Videotape on Summary Judgment817
    • § 15:12.3 : Examples819
    • § 15:12.4 : “Day in Life” Videotape823
    • § 15:12.5 : Computer-Generated Simulations824
  • § 15:13 : Audiotapes827
    • § 15:13.1 : Overview827
    • § 15:13.2 : Legal Principles: Admissibility of Audiotapes827
      • [A] : Authenticity and Accuracy828
      • [B] : Chain of Custody828
      • [C] : Voice Identification828
        • [C][1] : Overview828
        • [C][2] : Attempts to Prevent Voice Identification829
      • [D] : Part of Tape Inaudible829
        • [D][1] : Overview829
        • [D][2] : Inaudible Tapes—Background Sounds830
      • [E] : Enhanced Tapes831
      • [F] : Selective and Composite Tapes831
      • [G] : Use of Transcripts831
      • [H] : Function of Judge and Jury832
    • § 15:13.3 : Examples833
  • § 15:14 : Exhibits in Jury Room839
    • § 15:14.1 : Overview839
    • § 15:14.2 : Legal Principles839
Chapter 16: Documentary and Electronic Evidence
  • § 16:1 : Introduction842
  • § 16:2 : Authentication of Handwriting843
    • § 16:2.1 : Authentication Generally843
    • § 16:2.2 : Recognized Methods for Authenticating Handwriting843
      • [A] : Testimony of Witness with Knowledge844
      • [B] : Nonexpert Opinion about Familiarity with Handwriting844
      • [C] : Comparison with Authenticated Exemplar845
      • [D] : Distinctive Characteristics845
      • [E] : Ancient Documents846
      • [F] : “Self-Authentication”847
  • § 16:3 : “Best Evidence Rule”849
    • § 16:3.1 : Overview849
    • § 16:3.2 : Under the Common Law849
    • § 16:3.3 : When Are Contents of Writing in Issue?850
    • § 16:3.4 : Federal Rules of Evidence “Original Document” Rules Provisions852
      • [A] : Applications of Original Document Rule852
        • [A][1] : “Writings”852
          • [A][1][a] : Inscribed Chattels852
        • [A][2] : Photographs and X-Rays854
          • [A][2][a] : Photographs854
          • [A][2][b] : X-Rays854
      • [B] : What Is an Original? How About a Copy?854
        • [B][1] : Advances in Mechanical and Electronic Reproduction854
        • [B][2] : Multiple Originals855
        • [B][3] : Duplicates855
      • [C] : Excuses for Not Producing Original856
      • [D] : Public Records857
  • § 16:4 : Summaries and Charts859
    • § 16:4.1 : Overview859
    • § 16:4.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 1006: Summary Charts of Voluminous Documents859
    • § 16:4.3 : “Pedagogical Charts”861
    • § 16:4.4 : Illustrations862
  • § 16:5 : Rule of Completeness865
    • § 16:5.1 : Overview865
    • § 16:5.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 106865
  • § 16:6 : Electronic Evidence867
    • § 16:6.1 : Overview867
    • § 16:6.2 : Electronic Evidence Under the Federal Rules of Evidence867
    • § 16:6.3 : Recent Decisions: Admissibility of Electronic Evidence869
      • [A] : Emails869
      • [B] : Text Messages and Chat Conversations870
      • [C] : GPS Data872
      • [D] : Social Media873
      • [E] : Websites874
Chapter 17: Evidentiary Privileges
  • § 17:1 : Introduction876
  • § 17:2 : Privileges Under the Federal Rules of Evidence: In General876
    • § 17:2.1 : Overview876
    • § 17:2.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 501876
  • § 17:3 : Attorney-Client Privilege878
    • § 17:3.1 : General Considerations878
    • § 17:3.2 : Corporate Clients881
    • § 17:3.3 : Joint Clients; Joint Defense Agreements; Controversies Between Attorney and Client882
    • § 17:3.4 : Government Clients883
    • § 17:3.5 : Crime-Fraud Exception883
    • § 17:3.6 : Holder of Privilege884
    • § 17:3.7 : Death of Client884
    • § 17:3.8 : Waiver886
      • [A] : Fed. R. Evid. 502886
      • [B] : Intentional Disclosure887
      • [C] : Inadvertent Disclosure891
      • [D] : “Advice of Attorney” Placed in Issue892
      • [E] : Selected Circuit Decisions: Waiver of Attorney-Client Privilege and Related Issues894
    • § 17:3.9 : Appeals from Denial of Attorney-Client Privilege899
  • § 17:4 : Marital Privileges901
    • § 17:4.1 : Adverse Testimonial Privilege901
    • § 17:4.2 : Confidential Communication Privilege902
  • § 17:5 : Clergyperson Privilege907
  • § 17:6 : Physician-Patient Privilege910
  • § 17:7 : Psychotherapist-Patient Privilege910
    • § 17:7.1 : Overview910
    • § 17:7.2 : Jaffee v. Redmond910
    • § 17:7.3 : Dangerous Patient Exception?911
    • § 17:7.4 : Waiver Issues912
  • § 17:8 : Journalist Privilege919
    • § 17:8.1 : Overview919
    • § 17:8.2 : Circuit-by-Circuit—Select Recent Decisions Concerning Journalist Privilege921
  • § 17:9 : Law Enforcement Privilege922
  Appendices
Appendix A: Federal Rules of Evidence
Appendix B: Evidentiary Instructions
Appendix C: Selected Recent Federal Evidence Decisions—2014
Appendix D: Selected Federal Evidence Decisions—2013
Appendix E: Major Distinctions Between New York and Federal Evidence in Civil Cases
Appendix F: New York Evidence Developments—2013
  Table of Authorities
  Index

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